Hello everyone,

I have some problems regarding my statistical model for my master's dissertation. The dataset that I have is country-year as is unit of analysis, and the frequency is one observation per year. I would like to convert it into a time-series which accounts for the difference between countries and does not treat them on the same way.

I have used as.ts but I do not know whether the outcome that I get is correct, and thats the unique thing I have to do. I have also introduced the splines manually. I was wondering if there any easier way to get it.