Be sure to delete all remaining elements of RStudio off your system when attempting to install/reinstall, especially on a corporate networked environment (Registry Keys, System AppData, User Roaming AppData, User Local AppData, and any environment variables, etc.).
I noticed this issue: resolve intermittent failure to launch with development electron builds on Windows · Issue #10694 · rstudio/rstudio (github.com) but which is similar but not in the same circumstances as your issue.
To me this seems to be a firewall or network restrictions issue when rstudio attempts to launch some webpack loader that may call an external API to get latest version details or something. No idea.
If you can, also try adding the RStudio executable to Defender Exclusions and check firewall settings:
Add-MpPreference -ExclusionPath "$Env:PROGRAMFILES\RStudio\rstudio.exe"