Read origin of this answer at end before trying

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In R, you can convert your coordinates from degrees, minutes, and seconds (DMS) to decimal degrees using the `sp`

package. The convention you want to use, where negative longitude values are in the western hemisphere and negative latitude values are in the southern hemisphere, is the standard in geographic coordinate systems[5].

Here's a simple function to convert DMS to decimal degrees:

```
dms_to_decimal <- function(degrees, minutes, seconds, hemisphere) {
decimal <- degrees + minutes / 60 + seconds / 3600
if (hemisphere %in% c('S', 'W')) {
decimal <- -decimal
}
return(decimal)
}
```

You can apply this function to your data frame columns accordingly. For example, if you have a data frame `df`

with columns `Lat_Deg`

, `Lat_Min`

, `Lat_Sec`

, `Lat_Hem`

, `Long_Deg`

, `Long_Min`

, `Long_Sec`

, `Long_Hem`

, you can create new columns `Lat`

and `Long`

in decimal degrees as follows:

```
df$Lat <- with(df, mapply(dms_to_decimal, Lat_Deg, Lat_Min, Lat_Sec, Lat_Hem))
df$Long <- with(df, mapply(dms_to_decimal, Long_Deg, Long_Min, Long_Sec, Long_Hem))
```

Once you have your coordinates in decimal degrees, you can use `geom_sf`

in ggplot2 to plot your data. The `geom_sf`

function automatically handles the projection of your data, so you don't need to worry about converting your coordinates to a different system[3].

Remember to ensure that your data is in the correct format before plotting. For instance, the `sf`

package in R allows you to create spatial objects from data frames, which can then be used with `geom_sf`

[3]. If your data is not already in this format, you can use the `st_as_sf`

function from the `sf`

package to convert it[3].

Citations:

[1] r - Converting latitude and longitude - Stack Overflow

[2] Standard Latitudes and Longitudes | R-bloggers

[3] Introduction to geospatial data analysis in R

[4] r - Converting DMS to coordinates with +/- signs - Geographic Information Systems Stack Exchange

[5] Chapter 2 Spatial data in R | Spatial Statistics for Data Science: Theory and Practice with R

Comment: This is from a bot. It looks reasonable, but I haven't tested.