FAQ: How to do a minimal reproducible example ( reprex ) for beginners

A minimal reproducible example consists of the following items:

  • A minimal dataset, necessary to reproduce the issue
  • The minimal runnable code necessary to reproduce the issue, which can be run
    on the given dataset, and including the necessary information on the used packages.

Let's quickly go over each one of these with examples:

Minimal Dataset (Sample Data)

You need to provide a data frame that is small enough to be (reasonably) pasted on a post, but big enough to reproduce your issue.

Let's say, as an example, that you are working with the iris data frame

#>   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
#> 1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
#> 2          4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2  setosa
#> 3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2  setosa
#> 4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2  setosa
#> 5          5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2  setosa
#> 6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa

Note: In this example we are using the built-in dataset iris, as a representation of your actual data, you should use your own dataset instead of iris, or if your problem can be reproduced with any dataset, then you could use iris directly (or any other built-in dataset e.g. mtcars, ToothGrowth, PlantGrowth, USArrests, etc.) and skip this step.

And you are having issues while trying to do a scatter plot between Sepal.Length and Sepal.Width, so a good minimal sample data for this would be just the first 5 rows of those two variables

head(iris, 5)[, c('Sepal.Length', 'Sepal.Width')]
#>   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width
#> 1          5.1         3.5
#> 2          4.9         3.0
#> 3          4.7         3.2
#> 4          4.6         3.1
#> 5          5.0         3.6

Now you just need to put this into a copy/paste friendly format for been posted in the forum, and you can easily do it with the datapasta package.

# If you don't have done it already, You have to install datapasta first with
# install.packages("datapasta")
datapasta::df_paste(head(iris, 5)[, c('Sepal.Length', 'Sepal.Width')])
# This is the sample data that you have to use in your reprex.
      Sepal.Length = c(5.1, 4.9, 4.7, 4.6, 5),
       Sepal.Width = c(3.5, 3, 3.2, 3.1, 3.6)

A nice guide about datapasta can be found here:

You can also use dput provided in base, which is as simple as this:

dput(head(iris, 5)[c("Sepal.Length", "Sepal.Width")])
#> structure(list(Sepal.Length = c(5.1, 4.9, 4.7, 4.6, 5), Sepal.Width = c(3.5, 
#> 3, 3.2, 3.1, 3.6)), row.names = c(NA, 5L), class = "data.frame")

This output may seem awkward compared to the output of datapasta, but it's much more general in the sense that it supports many more types of R objects.

Minimal Runnable Code

The next step is to put together an example of the code that is causing you troubles, and the libraries that you are using for that code. Please narrow down your code to just the relevant and essential part needed to reproduce your issue.

library(ggplot2) # Make sure to include library calls for all the libraries that you are using in your example

# Remember to include the sample data that you have generated in the previous step.
df <- data.frame(stringsAsFactors = FALSE,
                 Sepal.Length = c(5.1, 4.9, 4.7, 4.6, 5),
                 Sepal.Width = c(3.5, 3, 3.2, 3.1, 3.6)
# Narrow down your code to just the problematic part.
ggplot(data = df, x = Sepal.Length, y = Sepal.Width) +
#> Error: geom_point requires the following missing aesthetics: x, y

Your Final reprex

Now that you have a minimal reproducible example that shows your problem, it's time to put it into a proper format to be posted in the community forum, this is very easy to do with the reprex package, just copy your code with Ctrl + c and run reprex() function in your console pane

# If you don't have done it already, You have to install reprex first with
# install.packages("reprex")

Now you can just do Ctrl + v in your forum post and voilà!, you have a properly formatted reprex like this:


df <- data.frame(stringsAsFactors = FALSE,
                 Sepal.Length = c(5.1, 4.9, 4.7, 4.6, 5),
                 Sepal.Width = c(3.5, 3, 3.2, 3.1, 3.6)
ggplot(data = df, x = Sepal.Length, y = Sepal.Width) +
#> Error: geom_point requires the following missing aesthetics: x, y


Note: The previous approach works if you are using a desktop version of RStudio but if you are using a server version (or you don't have access to your clipboard), you will have to paste your code inside the reprex() function like this.


df <- data.frame(stringsAsFactors = FALSE,
                 Sepal.Length = c(5.1, 4.9, 4.7, 4.6, 5),
                 Sepal.Width = c(3.5, 3, 3.2, 3.1, 3.6)

ggplot(data = df, x = Sepal.Length, y = Sepal.Width) +

Another point to note here is that reprex does not run in your working directory by default. It creates a temporary working directory, and hence if you read files from your working directory using relative paths, you'll get a lot of errors. The preferable way of avoiding this is to share the data in a copy-paste friendly format using datapasta or dput (as discussed above). But in case you can't do that, you can force reprex to use the current working directory using the outfile = NA argument, this won't be reproducible as people will not have access to your local files, and hence you will have to share your data set using some cloud storage service, for example Dropbox, Google Drive, etc.

The Answer

If you follow all these steps, most likely someone is going to copy your code into its R session, figure out what the problem is, in this example it would be that you forgot to put your variables inside the aes() function, and answer to you with a working solution like this.


df <- data.frame(stringsAsFactors = FALSE,
                 Sepal.Length = c(5.1, 4.9, 4.7, 4.6, 5),
                 Sepal.Width = c(3.5, 3, 3.2, 3.1, 3.6)

ggplot(data = df, aes(x = Sepal.Length, y = Sepal.Width)) +

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ggsurvplot() error
Descriptive analysis of a cluster
Why am I getting same forecast pattern for both the years (2016 and 2017) in holt winters method? What is wrong with my code?
Adding internal document links to section created using pdfpages package
2D plot from a matrix
parse_character chinese character
invalid to set the class to matrix unless the dimension attribute is of length 2
removing blanks/NA's
Outliers in Box Plots.
how to use mutate_at and fct_rev() together?
Problem running datasets in Rstudio
Categorical data
Dot density map help (ratios) error :could not find function "calc_dots"
Plotting an hyperbolic density using ggplot
How to perform a double arcsine back-transformation after meta-regression with moderator analysis in RStudio
Help needed! Aggregated counts in R
time series questions
Both t.test ; why different p-values??t.test()&ggboxplot()
ggplot2 query - facet wrapping, removal of legends and general formatting
Saving factor scores from grm
Calculating the hours minute secs and millseconds for few groups - Error on conversion
Add label to the Top or center of column chart
Negative number is character. Want to change to double
Error: Input year(s) is not numeric in R
Need to convert the Multiple Data frames with Array to single data frame
follow-up interaction resulted from lmer
Extracting text fields from a list of pdfs
ERROR : system is exactly singular
debounce list of inputs
New to R, need help plotting
distance between two documents with jaccard distance
Contingency Table Question
Random Forest - Variable lengths differ
Double loop to create a dataframe
Creating a PolarPlot
collapse consecutively repeated rows and group by other varibales
Changing shape of legend in ggplot
Rstudio to analyse CPG promotions
Linear Regression
Error in gbm.fit
Which test to use (animal behavior)
Error: Evaluation error: no applicable method
ggplot2 error message for Hidden Markov Models
ggplot : Beginner question about string data.
Randomly assigning values to missing data
Lubridate as_date
Can not remove the title of subplot
How to collapse rows in a dataframe?
PCA plot mean point
Arithmetics with extremely small numbers
missForest not working
how to find conditional mean?
need help with Haversine function
need help with Haversine function
Summarize Daily Precipitation by 4 and 6 days
how do i clean my social network
Beginner question with running a t-test
High Accuracy- seems fishy
Describe function not working
How to recode a factor in order to make a pie chart
How can I find the difference in population by year and zip code using dplyr?
str_replace_all problem
How to change Pearson to Spearman rank correlation
How to change Pearson to Spearman rank correlation
How to graph a scatter plot in 3D?
problem loading a trained mobilenet - "Error in py_call_impl(callable, ..., ...) : TypeError: '<' not supported between instances of 'dict' and 'float'
strings in rows of a data frame column
Help on - Loop - argument is of length zero
Handling missing multiple time series data in a csv file
Help with Averaging Data per county per state for AQI data... then maps
how to put external regressors in DCC model in R studio
Estimating Proportion with Survey Data in R
combining datasets with different countries and rows
Animation Slider Date Order
Why am I receiving a map_lgl error using dplyr for filtering my data?
how to truncate data
how to put external regressors in DCC model in R studio
Data entry form in r
How to get forecasting output for all individual input in R
cannot fit gev model to data. please help :(
How to define quadratic model without SO() or PQ() functions ?
How to convert a chr variable to a factor variable to be able to identify levels
Needs help on R. I find it difficult to install agricolae and to run some analysis such as LSD etc
How to average a subset of data based on other columns
Point shape in ggplot2 with distance matrix
Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Data analysis in R.
Construction of Repeated loop in R.
functional autoregressive model
Recode categorical variable
Applying a function to an entire data frame
Split data: text to columns
Creating diagonal matrix (diag) from Excel sheet
How to read text mining on pdf and how to call?
Analysis my data vs. library data
deidentify and duplicate data
A simple problem needs help【number of items to replace is not a multiple of replacement length】
Xplorerr Package/Library
A simple problem needs help【number of items to replace is not a multiple of replacement length】
Comparing Panel models after they have clustered SE R
replacing NA with for loop vs dplyr
Error on variable length
Trying to run a time series
Basic R Problem: Prepare data record
How to indent a code chunk without adding a list
Individual Scatter Boxplots for very large dataset marking price and product code
Converting 20110101 to 1
Apply function works incorrectly
Stacked bar chart with continuous Y variables
Help with Function()
metafor package, change the tol
Error in undefined Columns
translating xlsx.writeMultipleData("stdresids.xlsx", stdresids)" from library (xlsx) to library(writexl)
Formating DT table to add background color for interval values
Column that is a list
Mutate Evaluation error: objet '...' introuvable."
What is the difference of occurrence and density for different types with in 4 different populations
Filter unique and
Read characters with grep
trouble while using prophet() in R
How to compare a forecast model to actual data and what is uncertainty?
Regression model to predict student's grade in R
Error in if (attr(vectorizer, &quot;grow_dtm&quot;, TRUE) == FALSE
geom_bar display empty plot
creating histogram with lattice installed
How to substring value from row in r
How to extract factors names from anova function
plot is all black
plot is all black
Data vs Values in Global environment in R??
replace ALL... if the first...
Error in plot command - Error in xy.coords(x, y, xlabel, ylabel, log) : 'x' and 'y' lengths differ
R studio trying to start plm
how to create dummy variable using age group
How to apply ARIMA/time series on multicolumn/variable dataset
Different colours and labels for each df on one plot
Error in plot command - Error in xy.coords(x, y, xlabel, ylabel, log) : 'x' and 'y' lengths differ
Trying to figure out how to plot an age-length line / scatter graph in ggplot2?
no able to produce a legend
How to put "Input values" on the Box Title
debugging keras
Error with using %to%
Bivariate sorting
Problem getting this simple For loop correctly
How to crop gridded data with shapefile
missing values? again how can I solve this problems?
How to treat missing data for this case?
How to analyase ranking data in R please?
How to export CrossTable output to Excel

Please feel free to improve this FAQ, just keep in mind the general goal of making it friendly for r beginners (and if possible for non native English speakers as well)

EDIT: Translations to other languages are also welcome (please try to keep translation as close as posible to the original English text)